Signal transduction from receptor to cellular activation


Receptor proteins are located in the cytoplasm, cell membrane, or nuclear membrane. Receptors responsible for intercellular signaling are located on the cell surface, while intracellular activities are mediated by cytoplasmic and nuclear receptors.

Biologically active molecules (ligands) exert their physiological effect by activating or inducing 3D conformational changes in receptor proteins, which participate in signal transduction, cellular signaling, gene regulation, cellular proliferation and differentiation, or regulation of cellular metabolic processes.

Cellular signal transduction involves the conversion of one signal or stimulus (mechanical or chemical) to another. The transduction process is usually performed by enzymes in association with second messengers.

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